Problems of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>"Problems of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases"</strong> <span id="result_box" class="" lang="en">is <span class="">a collection of</span> NCIPD's scientific papers published in English, with periodicity two books <span class="">a year</span></span>.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en">The magazine <span class="">received</span> international acclaim and since 1997 has established itself as referenced <span class="">edition</span> in <strong>Exerpta Medica</strong>, and since 2008 - in <span class=""><strong>SCOPUS</strong>.</span></span></p> en-US (Iva Christova, MD, DSc) (Ivo Georgiev) Fri, 27 Dec 2019 11:19:37 +0200 OJS 60 CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS IN BLASTOCYSTIS SPP. INFECTION <p>The pathogenic potential of Blastocystis spp. is extremely controversial. Recently, many researchers have discussed its inductive role in the etiology of various dermatological syndromes such as palmoplantar pruritus, acute, and chronic urticaria. The growing number of urticaria patients showing improvement after eradication of Blastocystis spp. infection, has proven its causative nature. Herein, we present a broad overview of the modern concept of the precise parasitological verification in the routine work-up of urticaria patients.</p> Vladimir Vassilev, Simona Davidovska Copyright (c) 2019 Problems of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases Mon, 30 Dec 2019 11:27:38 +0200 A CASE OF PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS IN AN IMMUNOLOGICALLY INTACT 15-YEAR-OLD BOY <p>Aspergillus is a fungus which could cause a number of infectious and allergic diseases especially in immunocompromised patients.</p> <p>We report a case of 15-year-old boy with a small post-pneumonic cavity formation in the 3rd segment of the right lung. After conventional intravenous antibiotic treatment the X-ray changes were still persisting. The boy was in good general condition, without intoxication syndrome, with intact immune status. Physical examination was normal except for mild rare cough. The diagnosis was confirmed by imaging, serological and microbiological tests. Oral itraconazole (200 mg daily) was administered for 6 months along with monthly monitoring of the liver function. CT scan controls were performed in the 2nd, 4th and 6th month. Complete resolution of the cavity was observed in the final CT scan. No operative treatment was necessary.</p> <p>Although&nbsp; typical for immunocompromised patients, an immunologically intact child without other underlying diseases can also develop pulmonary aspergillosis. Small lesions respond well to conservative treatment without surgery. </p> Nataliya Gabrovska, Svetlana Velizarova, Albena Spasova, Dimitar Kostadinov, Nikolay Yanev, Hristo Shivachev, Yanko Pahnev, Zdravka Antonova, Todor Kantardjiev Copyright (c) 2019 Problems of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases Mon, 30 Dec 2019 12:45:54 +0200 INVASIVE PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS ASSOCIATED WITH INFLUENZA <p>The aim of this review is to present the increased frequency of influenza-associated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) cases reported from several countries. Classic risk factors or additional immunosuppression may not be observed in affected patients. Therefore, influenza-associated IPA might be diagnosed with a delay and consequently result in worse patient outcomes.</p> Lyubomira Boyanova Copyright (c) 2019 Problems of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases Mon, 30 Dec 2019 13:01:07 +0200 SEROPREVALENCE OF WEST NILE VIRUS IN BULGARIA, 2018 <p>In Bulgaria, the first laboratory-confirmed West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) case occurred in 2015 and more cases have been reported ever since. The aim of our study was to track the current circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) in the country. We collected 1830 serum samples from healthy people of every district in Bulgaria. Commercially available ELISA kits were used to detect specific anti-WNV IgG antibodies. All positive samples were tested for specific IgM antibodies using the same method. Possible risk factors were identified by calculating odds ratio. Specific IgG antibodies were detected in 22 of the samples (1.2%, CI 0.8% to 1.8%). No IgM antibodies were detected in the positive samples. The highest seroprevalence rates were found in the districts of Pleven, Varna, Silistra and Yambol. This study showed the continuous circulation and spread of WNV in Bulgaria</p> Elitsa Panayotova, Iva Christova, Iva Trifonova, Evgenia Taseva, Teodora Gladnishka, Vladislava Ivanova Copyright (c) 2019 Problems of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases Mon, 30 Dec 2019 13:33:57 +0200 IMPACT OF THE ENVIRONMENT ON DEVELOPMENT OF HELMINTH AND PROTOZOAN INVASIVE ELEMENTS AND CONTEMPORARY METHODS FOR SANITARY- PARASITOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS <p>According to the World Health Organisation, more than 1.5 billion of the world population is affected by parasitic diseases caused by geohelminths. The number of persons suffering from foodborne and waterborne protozoan diseases is similar. In developed countries, including Bulgaria, systematic sanitary and parasitological studies of soil and water are the basis for monitoring and control in protecting public health. Occurrence and prevalence of human parasitic infections is determined by the peculiarities of life cycle of parasites, peculiarities of hosts as reservoir sources, the abiotic and biotic factors of the environment as a complex providing conditions for the development or sterilisation of different parasite stages, as well as socioeconomic factors that play a leading role in the whole epidemiological process.</p> <p>Systematic sanitary-parasitological studies require the application of classical and novel reliable, sensitive and practical diagnostic methods that are also easy to perform, economical and efficient enough.</p> Mihaela Videnova Copyright (c) 2019 Problems of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases Mon, 30 Dec 2019 13:50:14 +0200 STUDY OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF PNEUMOCYSTOSIS IN BULGARIA BETWEEN SEPTEMBER 2017 AND APRIL 2019 BY USING REAL- TIME PCR <p><em>Pneumocystis jirovecii</em> is an opportunistic organism that inhabits predominantly the human pulmonary alveoli. The fully sequenced genome of <em>P. jirovecii</em> was first reported in 2012. According to some authors, <em>P. jirovecii</em> is an obligate pathogen because genes encoding virulence factors and most enzymes for amino acid biosynthesis were not found in the genome. This suggests that the microorganism normally colonises the human lungs but causes disease only in immunocompromised persons. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is one of the most common opportunistic infections in patients developing acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The use of conventional microscopic methods in diagnosis is associated with considerable limitations. Therefore, detection of <em>Pneumocystis</em> DNA in clinical samples by PCR techniques leads to significant advances in the diagnosis of PCP.</p> <p>The aim of this study is to determine the importance of PCR-based methods in the diagnosis of human pneumocystosis and to evaluate their diagnostic value in comparison with conventional microscopy methods. For a period of 20 months in the National Reference Laboratory “Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases” at the National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases 33 patients were tested by real-time PCR and 11 of them were found positive for the presence of <em>P. jirovecii</em> DNA. Eight of the patients (72.7%) were HIV-infected. Although limited in extent, this is the first real-time PCR study on the distribution of human pneumocystosis in Bulgaria. Our data shows that PCR techniques have higher sensitivity and specificity than microscopic methods and provide new opportunities for the diagnosis of <em>Pneumocystis</em> pneumonia.</p> Aleksandra Ivanova, Nina Tsvetkova, Rumen Harizanov, Raina Borisova Copyright (c) 2019 Problems of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases Mon, 30 Dec 2019 14:26:42 +0200 SURVEILLANCE DATA ON BACTERIAL ENTEROCOLITIS IN BULGARIA FOR 2014-2018 <p>Worldwide, 30% of cases of infectious diarrhoea are caused by bacterial pathogens. As in other countries of the European Union, in Bulgaria the most common etiological agents are <em>Escherichia coli</em> (STEC), <em>Salmonella </em>spp., <em>Shigella </em>spp., <em>Campylobacter </em>spp. and <em>Yersinia enterocolitica</em>. Acute gastroenteritis and enterocolitis infections are most common in young children. According to our survey, the leading pathogens for 2014-2018 are <em>Salmonella </em>spp., <em>E. coli</em> (EPEC, ETEC) and <em>Campylobacter </em>spp. The rate of infections caused by <em>Shigella </em>spp. is relatively high compared to other European countries.</p> <p>The number of enterocolitis cases of undefined aetiology continues to increase because of the neglect towards diarrhoeal syndrome by patients who rarely visit a doctor or do not seek medical attention at all.</p> Maria Pavlova, V. Velev, Miroslav Karageorgiev, Ekaterina Alexandrova, E. Kamenov, Todor Kantardjiev Copyright (c) 2019 Problems of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases Mon, 30 Dec 2019 14:52:42 +0200