PROBLEMS of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases 2020-10-15T12:53:12+00:00 Iva Christova, MD, DSc Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>"PROBLEMS of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases"</strong> <span id="result_box" class="" lang="en">is <span class="">a peer-reviewed journal of</span> NCIPD's scientific papers published in English on paper and in digital form, with periodicity two books <span class="">a year</span></span>.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en">The journal <span class="">received</span> international acclaim and since 1997 has established itself as referenced <span class="">edition</span> in <strong>Exerpta Medica</strong>, and since 2008 - in <span class=""><strong>SCOPUS</strong>.</span></span></p> LABORATORY COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SEROLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGICAL METHODS FOR DETECTION OF MEASLES VIRUS IN BULGARIA 2020-06-15T15:01:08+00:00 Ivona Andonova Radostina Stefanova Stefka Krumova <p>This study <strong>aimed</strong> to perform a comparative analysis between the frequency of detection of the measles virus in Bulgarian patients by using two types of laboratory methods - serological and molecular.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: The total 202 patients with two types of clinical material (serum samples and nasal swabs) were tested. The specimens were collected during the measles outbreak in Bulgaria in 2019. The serological - indirect EIA test for detection of specific IgM antibodies and molecular methods - extraction and detection of viral RNA were used.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In the present study, tested Bulgarian patients were divided into 11 age groups. The majority of patients were under 9 years of age (126/202, 62%), including children under 1 years of age (31/202, 15%). &nbsp;Acute measles infection was confirmed by ELISA-IgM in 136/202(67%) and by RT-PCR in 138/202 (68%) of cases. The positive patients detected only by PCR methods are mainly in younger tested. In 123/202 of the patients (60,89%) measles infection was confirmed by a combined serological and molecular-biological approach. The coincidence percentage rate of results obtained is 87%, including double positive (n=123) and double negative (n=52) tests. No significant differences in the results in terms of gender and age were found.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The combined&nbsp; laboratory approach (immunoenzymatic and molecular assay of each&nbsp; suspected case) is a requisite for measles detection, especially before the onset of symptoms when specific Ig M antibodies could not be detected. Molecular biological techniques are basic and preferred approach in the field of modern biomedical sciences.&nbsp; They play an important role in the early and accurate etiological diagnosis and monitoring of viral infections, in particular the measles virus.</p> 2020-10-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 PROBLEMS of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases IMMUNE RESPONSE TO COVID-19 COMPARED TO THE IMMUNE RESPONSE TO SARS, MERS AND INFLUENZA 2020-07-27T11:34:30+00:00 Velo Markovski <p>The course, form and outcome of an acute respiratory illness, as well as its patho-histological features largely depend on the level of inflammatory cytokines. The most important proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines are: IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17A, IFN-γ, TNF-α and GM-CSF. There are many similarities in the human immune response to influenza, SARS and MERS-CoV. Available studies of COVID-19 show a completely different immune response, i.e. immunological indifference or suppression.</p> <p>Influenza is a disease we have known for a long time. WHO has been successfully following the antigenic drift of influenza virus ever since 1952 (WHO’s Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS). This is necessary to monitor epidemiological characteristics of influenza as well as for the components of the seasonal vaccine which contains the antigenic characteristics of the subtypes and variants of influenza A virus that circulated in the previous season in the southern hemisphere. Throughout this period, many viruses and bacteria caused respiratory infections, sometimes in increasing epidemic numbers, but it was only the flu that caused serious problems. The epidemics were accompanied by high morbidity and significant mortality. Beta-corona viruses caused a serious warning in 2002 when SARS Cov-1 and MERS in 2012 appeared, followed by high mortality. Alpha corona viruses have been present all this time, but have caused mild upper respiratory infections and rhinitis, without serious consequences. Depending on the season and the region, corona viruses have been present in 10 to 35% of respiratory infections with the immune response to any infectious agent, may be mild, moderate and consequently heal, or severe when due to the high level of cytokines many barriers and membranes can be damaged and cause death. In influenza, the immune response is adequate. Only in a small percentage of cases, an overactive immune response is observed that causes damage and even death. SARS and MERS-CoV have been also shown to elicit a strong immune response.</p> <p>COVID-19 has been present for only a few months, and despite the efforts of many scientists, the epidemiological characteristics and pathogenesis of the disease are still not completely clear. Although COVID-19 belongs to beta corona viruses along with SARS and MERS-CoV, there are differences in the immune response. Whether COVID-19 weakens the immune system, or the immune system does not recognize it as a serious threat, there is a weak immune response during this infection. Such a significant discrepancy in the immune response can help understand the pathogenesis of COVID 19 and the causes of primary viral pneumonia and ARDS followed by high mortality.</p> 2020-10-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 PROBLEMS of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases Skin reactions to allergens from processionary caterpillars (genus Thaumetopoea) 2020-08-07T08:56:22+00:00 Georgi Nikolov Yana Kandova Bogdan Petrunov bogdan@petrun.ov Plamen Mirchev plamen@mirch.ev Georgi Georgiev georgi@georgi.ev <p><strong>Background:</strong> Moths of the genus <em>Thaumetopoea</em> are widespread pests in the coniferous and deciduous forests in Bulgaria. Contact with the caterpillars, larval form of different <em>Thaumetopoea</em> species, causes a series of complaints in humans: mainly contact dermatitis (erucism), but also IgE-mediated allergic reactions.</p> <p>The aim of the present pilot study is to investigate the skin reaction after prick tests with allergens from different <em>Thaumetopoea</em> species in a group of people who have frequent contacts with the processionary caterpillars.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods: </strong>A group of 42 subjects were surveyed - 37 men and 5 women between the ages of 18 and 87. Specific sensitization to caterpillars of three <em>Thaumetopoea</em> species: <em>Thaumetopoea pityocampa</em> (pine processionary); <em>Thaumetopoea processionea</em> (oak processionary) and <em>Thaumetopoea solitaria</em> (pistachio processionary) was assessed by allergy skin prick tests (SPT) with specially designed caterpillar allergens.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Positive allergy skin tests to one or more caterpillar’s allergens were measured in 18 (43%) participants. A simultaneous test with the three allergens from the different <em>Thaumetopoea</em> species showed that in 5 (31%) of the cases, skin hypersensitivity only to allergen from <em>T. </em><em>pityocampa</em> was present. Monosensitization to <em>T. processionea</em> observed in 2 (12%). The rest 9 (57%) participants with positive skin test show different profiles of polysensitization to <em>Thaumetopoea</em> allergens under study.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The evaluation of skin reactivity after SPT with different caterpillar’s allergens outlined the important role of processionary allergens, especially this from <em>T. pityocampa,</em> in the development of IgE-mediated allergic complaints in different groups of forestry professionals. In view of these results, it seems that IgE-mediated hypersensitivity allergic reactions to <em>Thaumetopoea</em> caterpillars are at least as important as those with no allergic mechanism.</p> 2020-10-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 PROBLEMS of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases First survey on Knowledge, attitude and practices about parasitic diseases among the population in the center of Morocco 2020-07-27T06:33:54+00:00 Hajar El Omari Abdelkader Chahlaoui Abdelhakim El Ouali Lalami <p>Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by infection by a leishmania-like flagellated protozoan whose only vector is an insect, Diptera, the sandfly. It is still a public health problem in several countries, notably in Morocco, where this pathology is widespread and is prevalent in sporadic or endemic forms.</p> <p>In order to determine the knowledge of the population in terms of leishmaniasis, its vector and means of transmission of the disease, we carried out a survey during the year 2017 with the consulting population at the level of all Health Centers (H/C )(45 Health Centers ). The descriptive results are presented as percentages and numbers. The chi-square test was used to test the association between the variables. Values ​​of p &lt;0.05 were considered significant. The calculation of chi² (X²) and the p-value are carried out using the software R.</p> <p>The grouping of responses shows a lack of knowledge of leishmaniasis and phlebotomy by a large majority of the population (97% and 95%, respectively), whereas there is no correlation between the socio-economic level of the population and this lack of knowledge (chi2 = 2.8, p&gt; 0.05), nor between the socio-economic level and the knowledge of the risk related to insects (chi-2 = 6.4, p&gt; 0.05).</p> <p>These data show the extent of the perception problems with parasitic diseases, particularly leishmaniasis and also the lack of awareness of the population against this scourge. Indeed, these data can be used to define measures to be taken to limit or even eradicate exposure, and subsequently risk.</p> 2020-10-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 PROBLEMS of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases ANALYSIS OF CIRCULATING STRAINS, CAUSING INVASIVE LISTERIOSIS IN BULGARIA FOR TEN YEARS, 2010-2019 2020-08-18T11:37:55+00:00 Evgeniya Taseva Iva Christova Elitsa Panayotova Iva Trifonova Teodora Gladnishka Vladislava Ivanova <p>Listeriosis is a zoonosis with multiple mechanisms of infection and multiple organ symptoms, severe course and high lethality. An increasing incidence of listeriosis has been reported in several European countries in recent years. A limited range of Listeria strains is responsible for most blasts occurring in different countries. The aim of the study is to monitor the spread of the Listeria strains causing invasive listeriosis in Bulgaria for the period 2010-2019 and to analyze the etiological structure of the infection in different hospitals in the country. A total of 56 strains Listeria from 17 hospitals were investigated for confirmation of species and serogroup. The materials were isolated from haemocultures, fetuses water, cerebrospinal fluids and anal and throat secretions and two tests were used. Confirmed strains isolated from the clinical samples for the study period belonged to 4 serogroups of Listeria. <em>Listeria monocytogenes serogroup I </em>was detected in 28 (50%) of the samples, <em>Listeria monocytogenes serogroup II </em>– in 43%, <em>Listeria innocua –</em>in 5% and <em>Listeria welshimeri </em>– in 2% of the samples. The strains isolated from cerebrospinal fluid predominated (52%) and those isolated from haemocultures were 36%. Nineteen of the isolated strains from cerebrospinal fluid belonged to serotype <em>4b</em> (19/29). <em>Listeria monocytogenes serogroup I</em> was detected in 70% from haemoculture. <em>Listeria innocua</em> and <em>Listeria welshimeri</em> were detected from cerebrospinal fluid. Serotype <em>1/2a</em> was found in six hospitals and serotype <em>4b</em> - in five hospitals. The majority of isolated strains was from newborns&nbsp; -12/56 (21.43%). Serotype <em>1/2a</em> was detected in 12 hospitals and serotype <em>4b</em> in 11 hospitals. The largest variety of strains was found in Plovdiv, UMBAL “Sv. Georgi”. The data confirmed a steady trend in the spread of certain listeria serotypes in each hospital over the years. The focus in the future should be on screening at-risk groups, mainly women of childbearing and it is recommended to look for the risk of listeriosis.</p> 2020-10-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 PROBLEMS of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases