A REVIEW OF MEASLES VIRUS
Keywords:measles virus, morphology, diagnosis, epidemiology, elimination
Measles is a highly contagious, acute febrile illness that results from infection with measles virus (MV). MV is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus in the genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. The wild-type MV consists of 24 genotypes, three of them (B3, D8 an H1) have dominated circulation in the world. MV is transmitted by the respiratory route and illness begins with fever, cough, conjunctivitis followed by a rash and measles enanthem (Koplik spot). Laboratory confirmation of measles is provided by serological (ELISA test for detection of IgM and IgG antibodies), molecular (detection of viral nucleic acid) and viral isolation in Vero/hSLAM cells methods. As a vaccine-preventable infection, measles has a global importance and is a target of WHO strategic goals in the European region. Despite significant progress in measles control in recent years, it is necessary to improve the national vaccination coverage, and the epidemiological and laboratory monitoring of the infection. High vaccination coverage across all of the population is crucial to reach the goals of measles elimination.
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