First survey on Knowledge, attitude and practices about parasitic diseases among the population in the center of Morocco

the case of leishmaniasis


  • Hajar El Omari Natural Resources Management and Development Team, Laboratory of Health and Environment, Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismail University, 50000Meknes, Morocco
  • Abdelkader Chahlaoui Natural Resources Management and Development Team, Laboratory of Health and Environment, Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismail University, 50000Meknes, Morocco
  • Abdelhakim El Ouali Lalami Higher Institute of Nursing Professions and Health Techniques Fez, Regional Health Directorate, EL Ghassani Hospital, 30000 Fez,Morocc


Leishmaniasis, Sandfly, Knowledge, attitude, practices, Population


Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by infection by a leishmania-like flagellated protozoan whose only vector is an insect, Diptera, the sandfly. It is still a public health problem in several countries, notably in Morocco, where this pathology is widespread and is prevalent in sporadic or endemic forms.

In order to determine the knowledge of the population in terms of leishmaniasis, its vector and means of transmission of the disease, we carried out a survey during the year 2017 with the consulting population at the level of all Health Centers (H/C )(45 Health Centers ). The descriptive results are presented as percentages and numbers. The chi-square test was used to test the association between the variables. Values ​​of p <0.05 were considered significant. The calculation of chi² (X²) and the p-value are carried out using the software R.

The grouping of responses shows a lack of knowledge of leishmaniasis and phlebotomy by a large majority of the population (97% and 95%, respectively), whereas there is no correlation between the socio-economic level of the population and this lack of knowledge (chi2 = 2.8, p> 0.05), nor between the socio-economic level and the knowledge of the risk related to insects (chi-2 = 6.4, p> 0.05).

These data show the extent of the perception problems with parasitic diseases, particularly leishmaniasis and also the lack of awareness of the population against this scourge. Indeed, these data can be used to define measures to be taken to limit or even eradicate exposure, and subsequently risk.


Dedet J. P. Leishmanies, leishmanioses : Biologie, clinique et thérapeutique. Maladies infectieuses .2009 ; 8-506 A-10:1-14.

Dupouy-Camet J, Classification et mode de transmission des parasite. Maladies infectieuses . 2000; 8-000-D-10:1-9.

Adler S, et Theodor O. Attempts to transmit Leishmania tropica by bite: the transmission of Leishmaniatropica by Phlehotomus sergenti. Annals of Tropical Medecine and Parasitologie.1929;23: 1-18,

Adler S, et Theodor O. Further observation on the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis to man from Phlebotomus papatasi (sic). Annals of Tropical Medecine and Parasitologie.1926; 20:175-189,.

Ashford R.W. The leishmaniases as emerging and reemerging zoonoses. International journal of Parasitology.2000; 30:1269-1281.

Rioux J.A., Akalay O., Périères J., et al. L’évolution éco-épidémiologique du risque leishmanien au Sahara atlantique marocain. Intérêt heuristique de la relation ‘phlébotomes bioclimats’. Ecologia Mediterranea . 1997 ; 23 :73–92.

Aubry P. Leishmanioses: Actualités 2008. Medecine Tropicale.2008.

Carré N, Collot M, Guillard P, Horellou M et Gangneux JP. Visceral leishmaniasis epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis. Journal de Pharmacie Clinique. 2010;29:121-148 .

Organisation mondial de la santé‘’ Lutte contre la leishmaniose’’ Rapport du secrétariat Conseil exécutif du 11 Mai, 2003, 2006.

Desjeux P. The increase in risk factors for leishmaniosis worldwide. Transactionof the Royal Society of Tropicale Medecine and Hygiene. 2001; 95:239-243.

Ministère de la santé marocaine, Direction de l’Epidémiologie et la Lutte Contre les Maladies. Lutte contre les leishmanioses : Guide des activités.2010

El Omari H, Chahlaoui A, El Ouali Lalami A, and khaffou M. The contribution of geographic information systems in the fight against parasitic diseases: the case of Leishmaniasis. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Smart City Applications (SCA ' 18). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2018; Article 63, 5p.

Ramaoui K, Guernaoui S et Boumezzough A. Entomological and epidemiological study of new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Morocc. Parasitology Research .2008; 103: 859-863.

Rhajaoui M,Fellah H, Pratlong F, Dedet j.P et Lyagoubi M. Leishmaniasis due to Leishmania tropica MON-102 in a new Moroccan focus. Transactionof the Royal Society of Tropicale Medecine and Hygiene. 2004,299–301,

Talbi F, El Ouali Lalami A, Janati Idrissi A, Sebti F, 4 and Faraj C. Leishmaniasis in Central Morocco: Seasonal Fluctuations of Phlebotomine Sand Fly in Aichoun Locality, from Sefrou Province. Pathology Research International. 2015 : 438749.

Haut-commissariat au Plan du Royaume du Maroc. [Online] Available

Ancelle . 2ème ed. Paris: MALOINE; 2006. Statistique épidémiologie.

Alemu A, Alemu A, Esmael N. et al. Knowledge, attitude and practices related to visceral leishmaniasis among residents in Addis Zemen town, South Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Public Health .2013.,13, 382

Sumaia ME, Sayed S, Ahmed E: Socio- cultural aspects of kalazar among Masalit and hawsa tribes. The Ahfad Jornal. 2001, 18 (1): 51-

Amin TT, Kaliyadan F, Al-Ajyan MI , Al-Arfaj AK , Al-mujhim MA, Al-Harbi SJ, et al. Public awareness and attitudes towards cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic region in Saudi Arabia J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2012, 26; pp. 1544-1551

Alvar J, Yactayo S, Bern C. Leishmainasis and poverty. Trends Parastol. 2006; 22(12):552–7.

Bailey F, Mondragon-Shem K, Haines RL, Olabi A, Alorfi A, Ruiz-Postigo JA, Alvar J, Hotez P, Adams ER, Velez ID, Al-Salem W, Eaton J, Acosta-Serraw A, Molyneux DH. Cutaneous leishmaniasis and co-morbid major depressive disorder: a systematic review with burden estimates. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019;13(2):e0007092

Alexander B, Malori M. Control of phlebotomine sandflies. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 2003 ; 17(1):1-18.

Boussaa S, Epidemiologie des leishmanioses dans la région de Marrakech, Maroc : effet de l’urbanisation sur la repartition spatio-temporelle des Phlebotomes et caracterisation moleculaire de leurs populations. Th. Doc. Univ. Louis Pasteur Strasbourg I.2008.

El Omari H, Chahlaoui A, Ouarrak K, Faraj C, El Ouali Lalami A;Surveillance of Leishmaniasis: Inventory and Seasonal Fluctuation of Phlebotomine Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae), at the Prefecture of Meknes (Center of Morroco).Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot 2018; 111:309-315. doi: 10.3166/bspe-2019-0061.

El Omari H, Chahlaoui A, Tlbi F, Ouarrak K, EL Ouali Lalami A. Impact of urbanization and socio-economic factors on the distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the center of Morocco. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious; 2020, 7 p.

WHO. Lutte contre les leishmanioses. Série de rapports techniques.1990 ;n° 793 : 176.

Cherif K., Boudrissa, A., Cherif, M. & Harrat, Z. Un programme social pour la lutte physique contre la leishmaniose cutanée zoonotique dans la wilaya de M'Sila en Algérie. Santé Publique. 2012; 24: 511-522.

Wijeyaratne PM, Arsenault J, Murphy CJ. Endemic disease and development: the leishmaniasis. Acta Tropica. 1994; 56:349-64.

Lasker RD, Weiss ES. Broadening participation in community problem solving: a multidisciplinary model to support collaborative practice and research. Journal of Urban Health. 2003; 80(1):14-47.

Israel BA, Checkoway B, Schulz A, Zimmerman M. Health education and community empowerment: conceptualizing and measuring perceptions of individual, organizational, and community control. Health Education. 1994; 21(2):149-170.

WHO Technical Report Series, 949, Control of the leishmaniases, report of a meeting of the WHO Expert Committee on the Control of Leishmaniases, Geneva, 22-26 March 2010.

Koirala S, Parija S, karki P, Das ML: Knowledge, attitudes and practice about kalazar and its sand fly vector in rural communities of Nepal. Bulletin of the WHO. 1998, 76 (5): 485-490.

A. Kroeger, E. V. Avila, and L. Morison, “Insecticide impregnated curtains to control domestic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Venezuela: cluster randomised trial,” British Medical Journal, vol. 325, no. 7368, pp. 810–813, 2002.

M. R. Yaghoobi-Ershadi, S. H. Moosa-Kazemi, A. R. Zahraei-Ramazani et al., “Evaluation of deltamethrin-impregnated bed nets and curtains for control of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in a hyperendemic area of Iran,” Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 43–48, 2006.

El omari H, ChahlaouiA, Bouzid J et El oualilalami A “Incidence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis In Meknes Prefecture (Centre of Morocco): A retrospective study of 56 cases collected between 2009 and 2013 Int. J. Innov. Appl.Stud2016; 8:228-236.

Bettayeba A., N. Cherrakb, N. Boumansour a, A. Serradj b, N. Midouna. Profil épidémiologique des leishmanioses cutanées prises en charge à Oran, Algérie, 2012–2014.Revue d'Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique. 2016; 64 ; S




How to Cite

El Omari, H., Chahlaoui, A. ., & El Ouali Lalami, A. (2020). First survey on Knowledge, attitude and practices about parasitic diseases among the population in the center of Morocco: the case of leishmaniasis. PROBLEMS of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, 48(2), 21–26. Retrieved from