SARCOIDOSIS

Authors

  • Borislava Tsafarova NCIPD department of microbiology

Keywords:

sarcoidosis, epidemiology, aetiology

Abstract

Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous inflammatory disorder that affects multiple organs – lungs, skin, heart, kidneys, liver, eyes, and nervous system, among others. The clinical course of sarcoidosis ranges from spontaneous resolution to chronic progressive disease which can be life-threatening. Most often, patients suffer from cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, and severe fatigue. In more severe cases, there is pulmonary fibrosis and/or irreversible damage to the organs affected by granulomas. Recent studies demonstrate innovative research in the field of sarcoidosis, thus significantly improved our knowledge of epidemiology and causative origins of the disease. Despite numerous studies, the aetiology of sarcoidosis is still not fully understood. It is proposed that the disease is caused by an unknown antigen (antigens) in humans with abnormal immune response, and a genetic predisposition. Here, we overview the current advances in sarcoidosis research.

References

James, D. G. Descriptive definition and historic aspects of sarcoidosis. Clin. Chest Med. 1997; 18:663–679.

Hosoda Y, Odaka M. History of sarcoidosis. Semin. Respir. Med. 1992; 13:359–367.

Hunninghake GW, Costabel U, Ando M, et al. ATS/ERS/WASOG statement on sarcoidosis. American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society/World Association of Sarcoidosis and other Granulomatous Disorders. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis. 1999 Sep; 16(2):149-73.

Judson MA, Boan AD, Lackland DT. The clinical course of sarcoidosis: presentation, diagnosis, and treatment in a large white and black cohort in the United States. Sarcoidosis Vasc. Diffuse Lung Dis. 2012; 29:119–127.

Arkema EV, Grunewald J, Kullberg S, et al. Sarcoidosis incidence and prevalence: a nationwide register- based assessment in Sweden. Eur. Respir. J. 2016; 48:1690–1699.

Byg KE, Milman N, Hansen S. Sarcoidosis in Denmark 1980–1994. A registry- based incidence study comprising 5536 patients. Sarcoidosis Vasc.Diffuse Lung Dis. 2003; 20:46–52.

Milman N, Selroos O. Pulmonary sarcoidosis in the Nordic countries 1950–1982. Epidemiology and clinical picture. Sarcoidosis. 1990; 7:50–57.

Baughman RP, et al. Sarcoidosis in America. Analysis based on health care use. Ann. Am. Thorac. Soc. 2016; 13:1244–1252.

Cozier YC, et al. Sarcoidosis in black women in the United States: data from the Black Women’s Health Study. Chest. 2011; 139:144–150.

Dumas O, Abramovitz L, Wiley AS, et al. Epidemiology of sarcoidosis in a prospective cohort study of U.S. women. Ann. Am.Thorac. Soc. 2016; 13: 67–71.

Morimoto T, et al. Epidemiology of sarcoidosis in Japan. Eur. Respir. J. 2008; 31:372–379.

Yoon HY, Kim HM, Kim YJ, et al. Prevalence and incidence of sarcoidosis in Korea: a nationwide population- based study. Respir. Res. 2018; 19:158.

Costa M, Dobrev P, Ivanov S. Epidemiology of sarcoidosis. Outlook. Sarcoidosis another granulomatous disorders. ExceptaMedica. 1988; 329-337.

Arkema EV, Cozier YC. Epidemiology of sarcoidosis: current findings and future directions. Ther. Adv. Chronic Dis. 2018; 9: 227–240.

Rabin DL, Richardson MS, Stein SR, et al. Sarcoidosis severity and socioeconomic status. Eur. Respir. J. 2001; 18: 499–506.

Grunewald J, Eklund A. Sex- specific manifestations of Lofgren’s syndrome. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2007; 175: 40–44.

Grunewald J, Eklund A. Lofgren’s syndrome: human leukocyte antigen strongly influences the disease course. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2009; 179: 307–312.

Carlens C, et al. Smoking, use of moist snuff, and risk of chronic inflammatory diseases. Am. J. Respir. Crit.Care Med. 2010; 181: 1217–1222.

Cozen W, Diaz-Sanchez D, Gauderman WJ, et al. Th1 and Th2 cytokines and IgE levels in identical twins with varying levels of cigarette consumption. J Clin Immunol. 2004; 24:617-22.

Cozier YC, et al. Obesity and weight gain in relation to incidence of sarcoidosis in US black women: data from the Black Women’s Health Study. Chest. 2015; 147:1086–1093.

Dumas O, Boggs K M, Cozier YC, et al. Prospective study of body mass index and risk of sarcoidosis in US women. Eur. Respir. J. 2017; 50:1701397.

Cozier YC, et al. Reproductive and hormonal factors in relation to incidence of sarcoidosis in US Black women: the Black Women’s Health Study. Am. J.Epidemiol. 2012; 176:635–641.

Saidha S, Sotirchos ES, Eckstein C. Etiology of Sarcoidosis: does infection Play a role? Yale J. Biol. Med. 2012; 85:133-141.

Grunewald J, Eklund A. Role of CD4+ T cells in sarcoidosis. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2007; 4(5):461-464.

Grunewald J, Grutters JC, Arkema EV, et al. Sarcoidosis. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2019; 5, 45

Darlington P, Haugom-Olsen H, Von Sivers K, et al. T-cell phenotypes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, blood and lymph nodes in pulmonary sarcoidosis-indication for an airborne antigen as the triggering factor in sarcoidosis. J Intern Med. 2012; 272(5):465–471.

Ziegenhagen MW, Müller-Quernheim J. The cytokine network in sarcoidosis and its clinical relevance. J Intern Med. 2003; 253(1):18–30.

Locksley RM. Interleukin 12 in host defense against microbial pathogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1993; 90(13):5879-80.

Lammas DA, De Heer E, Edgar JD, et al. Heterogeneity in the granulomatous response to mycobacterial infection in patients with defined genetic mutations in the interleukin 12-dependent interferon-gamma production pathway. Int J Exp Pathol. 2002; 83(1):1-20.

Ostadkarampour M, et al. Higher levels of interleukin IL-17 and antigen- specific IL-17 responses in pulmonary sarcoidosis patients with Lofgren’s syndrome. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 2014; 178:342–352.

Newman LS, Rose CS, Bresnitz EA, ACCESS Research Group, et al. A case control etiologic study of sarcoidosis: environmental and occupational risk factors. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004; 170(12):1324-30.

Barnard J, Rose C, Newman L, ACCESS Research Group, et al. Job and industry classifications associated with sarcoidosis in A Case-Control Etiologic Study of Sarcoidosis (ACCESS). J Occup Environ Med. 2005; 47(3):226-34.

Esteves T, Aparicio G, Garcia-Patos V. Is there any association between Sarcoidosis and infectious agents?: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Pulm Med 2016; 16: 165.

Celada LJ, Hawkins Ch, Drake WP. The Etiologic Role of Infectious Antigens in Sarcoidosis Pathogenesis. Clin Chest Med. 2015; 36:561–568.

Ezzie M, Crouser E. Considering an infectious etiology of sarcoidosis. Clinics in Dermatology. 2007; 25: 259–266.

Zhao MM, Du SS, Li QH, et al. High throughput 16SrRNA gene sequencing reveals the correlation between Propionibacterium acnes and sarcoidosis. Respir Res. 2017; 18:28.

Negi M, Takemura T, Guzman J, et al. Localization of Propionibacterium acnes in granulomas supports a possible etiologic link between sarcoidosis and the bacterium. Modern Pathology. 2012; 25(9):1284–1297.

Nagata K, Eishi Y, Uchida K, et al. Immunohistochemical Detection of Propionibacterium acnes in the Retinal Granulomas in Patients with Ocular Sarcoidosis. Sci Rep. 2017; 7,15226.

Abe C, Iwai K, Mikami R, et al. Frequent isolation of Propionibacterium acnes from sarcoidosis lymph nodes. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie Mikrobiologie und Hygiene. 1984 Series A, 256(4):541–547.

Homma JY, Abe C, Chosa H, et al. Bacteriological investigation on biopsy specimens from patients with sarcoidosis. Japanese Journal of Experimental Medicine. 1978; 48(3):251–255.

Eishi Y, Suga M, Ishige I, et al. Quantitative analysis of mycobacterial and propionibacterial DNA in lymph nodes of Japanese and European patients with sarcoidosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2002; 40(1):198–204.

Saboor SA, Johnson NM, Mcfadden J. Detection of mycobacterial DNA in sarcoidosis and tuberculosis with polymerase chain reaction. Lancet. 1992; 339(8800):1012–5.

Gazouli M, Ikonomopoulos J, Trigidou R, et al. Assessment of mycobacterial, propionibacterial, and human herpesvirus 8 DNA in tissues of Greek patients with sarcoidosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2002; 40:3060–3063.

Li N, Bajoghli A, Kubba A, et al. Identification of mycobacterial DNA in cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis. J Cutan Pathol. 1999; 26:271–278.

Gupta D, Agarwal R, Aggarwal AN, et al. Molecular evidence for the role of mycobacteria in sarcoidosis: a meta-analysis. Eur Resp J. 2007; 30: 508-516.

Song Z, Marzilli L, Greenlee BM, et al. Mycobacterial catalase-peroxidase is a tissue antigen and target of the adaptive immune response in systemic sarcoidosis.J Exp Med. 2005; 201(5):755-67.

Downloads

Published

2021-04-16

How to Cite

Tsafarova, B. (2021). SARCOIDOSIS. PROBLEMS of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, 49(1), 32–36. Retrieved from https://pipd.ncipd.org/index.php/pipd/article/view/49-1-5_sarcoidosis

Issue

Section

Articles