TOXOCARIASIS - WHAT DO WE KNOW?

A LITERATURE REVIEW

Authors

  • Eleonora Kaneva National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases

Keywords:

Toxocariasis, diagnosis, VLM, OLM

Abstract

Toxocariasis is a helminthic zoonosis caused by the presence and migration of animal nematode larvae in human tissue – mostly Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati. The term visceral larva migrans syndrome was used for the first time in 1952 by Beaver et al. who described the typical clinical presentation. There are difficulties in the diagnosis of toxocariasis because of the variety of symptoms depending on the larva localisation in different tissues and organs. Currently, the most commonly used serological methods are ELISA and Western blot. The disease is characterised by diverse clinical picture and thus toxocariasis is very rarely identified and most patients remain undiagnosed, which requires in-depth study of this widespread but still problematic zoonosis.

Author Biography

Eleonora Kaneva, National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases

Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine

References

Perlingiero J, Gyӧrgy P. Chronic eosinophilia; Report of a case with necrosis of the liver, pulmonary infiltration, anemia and ascaris infestation. Am J Dis Child. 1947; 73(1):34-43.

Zuelzer W, Apt L. Disseminated visceral lesions associated with extreme eosinophilia; pathologic and clinical observations on a syndrome of young children. Am J Dis Child. 1949; 78(2):153-181.

Mercer R, Lund H, Bloomfield M, Calwell F. Larval ascariasis as a cause of chronic eosinophilia with visceral manifestations. Am J Dis Child. 1950; 80(1):46-58.

Wilder HC. Nematode endophthalmitis. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1950; 55:99-109.

Nichols R. The etiology of visceral larva migrans. J Parasitol. 1956; 42(4):349-362.

Beaver P, Snyder C, Carrera G, Dent J, Lafferty J. Chronic eosinophilia due to visceral larva migrans: report of three cases. Pediatrics. 1952; 9(1):7-19.

Taylor M, Keane C, O’Connor P, Mulvihill E, Holland C. The expanded spectrum of toxocaral disease. Lancet. 1988; 1(8587):692-695.

Gibbons L, Jacobs D, Sani R. Toxocara malaysiensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) from domestic cat (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758). J Parasitol. 2001; 87(3):660-665.

Macchioni G. A new species Toxocara lyncis in the caracal (Lynx caracal). Parasitology. 1999; 41(4):529-532.

Glickman L, Schantz P. Epidemiology of zoonotic toxocariasis. Epidemiol Rev. 1981; 3:230-250.

Thienpoint D, Rochette F, Vanparijs O. Diagnosing Helminthiasis through Coprological Examination. Janssen Research Foundation: Beerse, elgium. 1979; 110-121.

Schacher J. A contribution to the life history and larval morphology of Toxocara canis. J Parasitol. 1957; 43(6):599-610.

Overgaauw P. Aspects of Toxocara epidemiology: toxocarosis in dogs and cats. Crit Rev Microbiol. 1997; 23(3):233-251.

Dubey J. Patent Toxocara canis infection in ascarid naïve dogs. J Parasitol. 1978; 64(6):1021-1023.

Burke T, Roberson E. Prenatal and lactational transmission of Toxocara canis and Ancylostomum canium: experimental infection of the bitch before pregnancy. Int J Parasitol. 1985; 15(1):71-75.

Taira K, Saeed I, Permin A, Kapel C. Zoonotic risk of Toxocara canis infection through consumption of pig or poultry viscera. Vet Parasitol. 2004; 121(1-2):115-124.

Takahashi J, Uga S, Matsumura T. Cockroach as a possible transmitter of Toxocara canis. Jap J Parasitol. 1990; 39:551-556.

Pahari T, Sasmal N. Experimental infection of Japanese quail with Toxocara canis larvae through earthworms. Vet Parasitol. 1991; 39:337-340.

Рawlowski Z. Toxocariasis in humans: clinical expression and treatment dilemma. J Helminthol. 2001; 75(4):299-305.

Xinou E, Lefkopoulos A, Gelagoti M, Drevelagas A, Diakon A, Milonas I, Dimitriadis A. CT and MR imaging findings in cerebral toxocaral disease. Am J Neuroradiol 2003; 24(4):714-718.

Kayes S. Human toxocarosis and the visceral larva migrans syndrome: correlative immunopathology. In: Freedman D., ed. Immunopathogenetic aspects of disease induced by helminth parasites: chemical immunology. Basel, Karger, 1997; V. 66, p.99-124.

Glickman L, Shofer F. Zoonotic visceral and ocular larva migrans. Vet Clin N Am. 1987; 17(1):39-53.

Dent J, Nichols R, Beaver P, Carrera G, Staggers R. Visceral larva migrans. Am J Pathol. 1956; 32(4):777-803.

Neafie R, Connor D. In Pathology of tropical and extraordinary diseases, Binford C, Connor D (eds). Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington DC, USA. 1976. pp. 433-436.

Despommier D. Toxocariasis: clinical aspects, epidemiology, medical ecology, and molecular aspects. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003; 16(2):265-272.

Loez L, Martin G, Chamorro C, Mario J. Toxocariossis en ninos de una region subtropical. Medicina (B Aires). 2005; 65(3):226-230.

Carvalho E, Rocha R. Toxocariasis: visceral larva migrans in children. J Pediatria. 2011; 87(2):100-110.

Snyder C. Visceral larva migrans. Paediatrics. 1961; 28:85-91.

Aguiar-Santos A, Andrade L, Medeiros Z, Chieffi P, Lescano S, Perez E. Human toxocariasis: frequency of anti-Toxocara antibodies in children and adolescents from an outratient clinic for lymphatic filariasis in Recife, Northeast Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2004; 46(2):81-85.

Luzna-Lyskov A. Toxocarosis in children living in a highly contaminated area. An epidemiological and clinical study. Acta Parasitol. 2000; 45(1):40-42.

Guerra A, Navarro C, de Guevara C. Seroprevalence of toxocariasis in children and a case of VLM. Eur J Epidemiol. 1995; 11(6):701-702.

Jacob C, Pastorino A, Peres B, Mello E, Okay Y, Oleska G. Clinical and laboratorial features of visceral toxocariasis in infancy. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 1994; 36(1):19-26.

Bartelink A, Kortbeek L, Huidekoper H, Meulenbelt J, van Knapen F. Acute respiratory failure due to Toxocara infection. Lancet. 1993; 342(8881):1234.

Ashwath M, Robinson D, Katner H. A presumptive case of toxocariasis associated with eosinophilic pleural effusion: case report and literature review. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004; 71(4):764.

Roig J, Texido A, Domingo C, Morera J. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia due to toxocariasis with bronchoalveolar lavage findings. Chest. 1992; 102(1):294-296.

Inoue K, Inoue Y, Arai T, Nawa Y, Kashima Y, Yamamoto S, Sakatani M. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia due to visceral larva migrans. Intern Med. 2002; 41(6):478-482.

Zibaei M, Sadjjadi S, Geramizadeh B, Firoozeh F. Hepatic Toxocariasis in a child: a case report from Shiraz, Southern Iran. Hepatitis monthly. 2008; 8(4):310-312.

Vargo T, Singer D, Gillatte P, Fernbach D. Myocarditis due to visceral larva migrans. J Pediatr. 1977; 90(2):322-323.

Kuenzli E, Neumayr A, Chaney M, Blum J. Toxocariasis – associated cardiac diseases – a systematic review of the literature. Acta Tropica. 2016; 154:107-120.

Moreira-Silva S, Rodrigues M, Pimenta J, Gomes C, Freire L, Pereira F. Toxocariasis of the central nervous system: with repott of two cases. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2004; 37(2):169-174.

Osoegawa M. Diagnosis and treatment of CNS parasite infection with special reference to parasitic myelitis. Rinsho Shinkeigaku . 2004; 44(11):961-964.

Dousset V, Sibon I, Menegon P. Case no 6. Cerebral vasculitis due to Toxocara canis (or catis) origin. J Radiol. 2003; 84(1):89-91.

Richartz E, Buchkremer G. Cerebral toxocariasis: a rare cause of cognitive disorders. A contribution to differential dementia diagnosis. Nervenarzt. 2002; 73(5):458-462.

Critchley E, Vakil S, Hutchinson D, Taylor P. Toxoplasma, Toxocara, and epilepsy. Epilepsia. 1982; 23:315-323.

Woodruff A, Bisseru B, Bowe J. Infection with animal helminths as a factor in causing poliomyelitis and epilepsy. Brit Med J.1966; 1(5503):1576-1579.

Glickman L, Cypess R. Toxocara infection and epilepsy in children. J Pediatr. 1979; 94(1):75-78.

Robinson A, Tannier C, Magnaval J. Toxocara canis meningoradiculitis. Rev Neurol. 2002; 158:351-353.

Rayes A, Nobre V, Teixeira D, Serufo Y, Filho G, Antunes C, Lambertucci Y. Tropical pyomyositis and human toxocariasis: a clinical and experimental study. Am J Med. 2000; 109(5):422-425.

Amir J, Harel L, Eidlitz-Markus T, Varsano I. Lymphedema as a presenting sign of toxocariasis. Infection. 1995; 23(6):389-390.

Qualizza R, Incorvaia C, Grande R. Chronic idiopathic urticarial and neglected Toxocara infection. World Allergy Organ J. 2012; 5(Suppl 2):s202.

Taylor M, Keane C, O’Connor P, Girdwood R, Smith H. Clinical features of covert toxocariasis. Scand J Infect Dis. 1987; 19(6):693-696.

Figueiredo S, Taddei J, Menezes J, Novo N, Silva E, Cristóvão H, Curi M. Estudo clínico-epidemiológico da toxocaríase em população infantil. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2005; 81(2):126-132.

Bachmeyer C, Lamarque G, Morariu R, Molina T, Bouree P, Delmer A. Visceral larva migrans mimicking Lymphoma. Chest. 2003; 123(4):1296-1297.

Steward J, Cubillan L, Cunning E. Prevalence, clinical features and causes of vision loss among patients with ocular toxocariasis. Retina. 2005; 25(8):1005-1013.

Ashton N. Larval granulomatosis of the retina due to Toxocara. Brit J Ophthal. 1960; 44(3):129 -148.

Ahn S., Woo S, Jin Y, Chang Y, Kim T, Ahn Y, Heo Y, Yu H, Chung H, Park K, Hong S. Clinical features and course of ocular toxocariasis in adults. PLOS Neglected Trop Dis. 2014; 8(6):e 2938.

Pollard Z, Jarrett W, Hagler W. ELISA for diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis. Ophthalmology. 1979; 86:743-749.

Magnaval J, Glickman L, Dorchies P, Morassin B. Highlights of human toxocariasis. Korean J Parasitol. 2001; 39(1):1-11.

Good B, Holland C, Taylor M, Larragy J, Moriarty P, O’ Regan M. Ocular toxocariasis in schoolchildren. Clin Inffect Dis. 2004; 39(2):173-178.

Feldman G, Parker H. Visceral larva migrans associated with the hypereosinophilic syndrome and the onset of severe asthma. Ann Intern Med. 1992; 116(10):838-840.

Wolfrom E, Chene G, Boisseau H, Beylot C, Geniaux M, Taieb A. Chronic urticarial and Toxocara canis. Lancet. 1995; 345(8943):196.

Le Luyer B, Menager V, Andebert C, Le Ropux P, Briguet M, Boulloche J. Inflamatory joint disease as a manifestation of Toxocara canis larva migrans. Ann Pediatr. 1990; 37:445-448.

Bass J, Mehta K, Glickman L, Blocker R, Eppes B. Asymptomatic toxocariasis in children. A prospective study and treatment trial. Clin Pediatr. 1987; 26(9):441-446.

Meyer-Riemann W, Petersen J, Vogel M. Extraktionsversuch einer intraretinalen Nematode im papillomakularen Bundel. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd. 1999; 214:116-119.

De Savigny D, Voller A, Woodruff A. Toxocariasis: serological diagnosis by enzume immunoassay. J Clin Pathol. 1979; 32(3):284-288.

Jacquier P, Gottstein B, Stingelin Y, Eckert J. Immunodiagnosis of toxocarosis in humans: evaluation of a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. J Clin Microbiol. 1991; 29(9):1831-1835.

Glickman L, Schantz P, Grieve R. Toxocariasis. In immunodiagnosis of Parasitic Diseases, volume 1: Helmintic diseases, Walls K., Schantz P. (eds.). NewYork: Academic Press, NYC, USA. 1986; 201-231.

Magnaval J, Fabre R, Maurieres P, Charlet J, de Larrard B. Application of the Western blotting procedure for the immunodiagnosis of human toxocariasis. Parasitol Res. 1991; 77(8):697-702.

Buijs J, Borsboom G, Renting M, Hilgersom W, van Wieringen J, Jansen G, Neijens Y. Relationship between allergic manifestations and Toxocara seropositivity: A cross-sectional study among elementary school children. Eur Respir J. 1997; 10:1467-1475.

Petithory J, Chaumeil C, Liotet S, Rosseau M, Bisognani C. Immunological studies on ocular larva migrans. In Lewis J., Maizels R. (eds), Toxocara and Toxocariasis. London: Institute of Biology and the British Society for Parasitology.1993; 81-89.

Gill D, Dunne K, Kenny V. Toxocariasis in children. Lancet i. 1998; 1172.

Robertson B, Burkot T, Gillespie S, Kennedy M, Wambai Z. Detection of circulating parasite antigen and specific antibody in Toxocara canis infection. Clin Exp Immunol. 1988; 74(2):236-241.

Hogarth-Scott R, Johansson S, Bennich H. Antibodies to Toxocara in the sera of Visceral larva migrans patients: the significance of raised levels of IgE. Clin Exp Immunol. 1969; 5:619-625.

Elsheikha H, El-Beshbishi S, El-Shazly A, Hafez A, Morsy T. Kinetics of eosinophilia and IgE production in experimental murine toxocariasis. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2008; 38 (1):53-64.

Dattoli V, Freire S, Mendonca L, Santos P, Meyer R, Alcantara-Neves N. Toxocara canis infection is associated with eosinophilia and total IgE in blood donors from a large Brazilian centre. Trop Med Int Health. 2011; 16(4):514-517.

Magnaval J, Berry A, Fabre R, Morassin B. Eosinophil cationic protein as a possible marker of active human Toxocara infection. Allergy. 2001; 56(11):1096-1099.

Niedworok M, Sordyl B, Borecka A, Gawor J, Malecka-Panas E. Estimation of eosinophilia, immunoglobulin E and eosinophilic cationic protein concentration during the treatment of toxocariasis. Wiad Parazytol. 2008; 54(3):225-230.

Hubner J, Uhlikova M, Leissova M. Diagnosis of the early phase of larval toxocariasis using IgG avidity. Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol. 2001; 50(2):67-70.

Magnaval J-F, Fabre R, Maurieres P, Charlet J, de Larrard B. Evaluation of an immunoenzymatic assay detecting specific anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin E for diagnosis and posttreatment follow-up of human toxocariasis. J Clin Microbiol. 46 1992; 30(9):2269-2274.

Obwaller A, Jensen-Jarolim E, Auer H, Huber A, Kraft D, Aspöck H. Toxocara infestations in humans: symptomatic course of toxocarosis correlates significantly with levels of IgE/anti-IgE immune complexes. Parasite Immunol. 1998; 20(7):311-317.

Watthanakulpanich D, Smith H, Hobbs G, Whalley A, Billington D. Application of Toxocara canis excretory-secretory antigens and IgG subclass antibodies (IgG1-4) in serodiagnostic assays of human toxocariasis. Acta Tropica. 2008; 106(2):90-95.

Dupas B, Barrier J, Barre P. Detection of Toxocara by computed tomography. Br J Radiol. 1986; 59(701):518-519.

Ruttinger P, Hadidi H. MRI in cerebral toxocaral disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr. 1991; 54:361-362.

Baldisserotto M, Conchin C, Da Soares M, Araujo M, Kramer B. Ultrasound findings in children with toxocariasis: report on 18 cases. Pediatr Radiol. 1999; 29:316-319.

Jacobs D, Zhu X, Gasser R, Chilton N. PCR-based methods for identification of potentially zoonotic ascaridoid parasites of the dog, fox and cat. Acta Tropica. 1997; 68(2):191-200.

Zhu X, Chilton N, Jacobs D, Boes J, Gasser R. Characterisation of Ascaris from human and pig hosts by nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences. Int J Parasitol. 1999; 29 (3):469-478.

Li M, Zhu X, Gasser R, Lin R, Sani R, Lun Z, Jacobs D. The occurrence of Toxocara malaysiensis in cats in China, confirmed by sequence-based analyses of ribosomal DNA. Parasitol Res. 2006; 99:554-557.

Pinelli E, Roelfsema J, Brandes S, Kortbeek T. Detection and identification of Toxocara canis DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage of infected mice using a novel real-time PCR. Vet Parasitol. 2013; 193(4):337-341.

Jex A, Waeschenbach A, Littlewood D, Hu M, Gasser R. The mitochondrial genome of Toxocara canis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008; 2 e273.

Maizels R, Tetteh K, Loukas A. Toxocara canis7 genes expressed by the arrested infective larval stage of a parasitic nematode. Int J Parasitol. 2000; 30(4):495-508.

Chen J, Zhou D, Nisbet A, Xy M, Huang S, Li M, Wang C, Zhu X. Advances in molecular identification, taxonomy, genetic variation and diagnosis of Toxocara spp. Infect Gen Evol. 2012; 12(7):1344-1348.

Zheleva R. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the indirect hemagglutination test with Ascaris and Toxocara antigens in diagnosis of larva migrans symptom complex in man. Med Parazitol. 1976; 45(2):160-165.

Raynova Y. Development and characterization of ELISA and Western blot with Toxocara canis excretory / secretory antigens for diagnosis and investigation of the spread of toxocarosis in humans in our country. PhD Thesis, NCIPD, Sofia 2006.

Magnaval J-F, Glickman l, Dorchies P. La toxocarose, une zoonose helminthique majeure. Rev Med Vet. 1994; 145:611-627.

Chomel B, Kasten R, Adams C, Lambillotte D, Theis Y, Goldsmith R, Koss Y, Chioino C, Widjana P, Sutisna P. Serosurvey of some major zoonotic infections in children and teenagers in Bali, Indonesia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1993; 24(2)v:321-326.

Raynova I. Study of Toxocara antibody bearing among healthy people in Bulgaria. X European Multicolloquium of Parasitology-EMOP 10. 2008.

Downloads

Published

2019-06-27

How to Cite

Kaneva, E. (2019). TOXOCARIASIS - WHAT DO WE KNOW? A LITERATURE REVIEW. PROBLEMS of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, 47(1), 39–46. Retrieved from https://pipd.ncipd.org/index.php/pipd/article/view/47_1_7_TOXOCARIASIS-WHAT_DO_WE_KNOW

Issue

Section

Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)