• Iskren Kaftandjiev National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Sofia, Bulgaria, Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine
  • Rumen Harizanov National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Sofia, Bulgaria, Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine


ocular toxoplasmosis, diagnosis, treatment


Toxoplasmosis in humans is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by a ubiquitous protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasmosis is an opportunistic infection that can cause serious damage in immunocompromised patients. While in the non-immunocompromised individuals it is most often latent and asymptomatic, about one-third of the world’s population is estimated to be infected. Toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of posterior uveitis in non-immunocompromised individuals and the second most common cause of chorioretinitis after cytomegalovirus infection in people with HIV / AIDS. The infection can be acquired congenitally or postnatally and ocular lesions may present during or years after the occurance of the acute infection. Molecular biology techniques to diagnose ocular toxoplasmosis have been available for many years and are now accessible as standard laboratory tests in many countries. Aqueous humor or vitreous evaluation to detect parasite DNA by polymerase chain reaction or specific antibodies may provide evidence for diagnosis. Oral pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine plus corticosteroids are an effective therapy for ocular toxoplasmosis. Recent data supports the use of other treatment options, including intravitreal antibiotics. The aim of the present review is to discuss briefly the new diagnostic and treatment approaches for ocular toxoplasmosis.


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How to Cite

Kaftandjiev, I., & Harizanov, R. (2021). OCULAR TOXOPLASMOSIS: BRIEF LITERATURE REVIEW . PROBLEMS of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, 49(1), 41–50. Retrieved from https://pipd.ncipd.org/index.php/pipd/article/view/49-1-7_ocular_toxoplasmosis




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