STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF IMPORTED PARASITIC DISEASES IN BULGARIA (2014-2020)
CHALLENGES AND RISKS FOR THE PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM
Keywords:imported parasitic diseases, potential risk, local distribution, prevention, control
The aim of this study is to analyze data on the structure and dynamics of imported parasitic diseases and the potential risk of local spread of already eradicated diseases, and of those that do not have local spread so far, but there are environmental conditions for their occurrence.
Material and Methods. This is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of imported parasitic diseases in the country for a seven-year period. We used data from the annual analyzes of parasitic morbidity developed by the NCIPD, data from the diagnostic and reference activity of the National Reference Laboratory for Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases, and data from the annual reports of the Regional Health Inspectorates.
Results. During the period 2014-2020, 22 862 persons were studied, of whom 896 (3.9%) were Bulgarian citizens and 21 966 (96.1%) were foreigners. Imported parasite diseases were found in 794 people (prevalence 3.47%). Different types of parasites causing pathology of the gastrointestinal tract accounted for 87.53% (n = 695) of the identified pathogens, while the relative share of vector-borne parasitic diseases was 12.47% (malaria 11.09%, visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis 1.38%).
Conclusion. There are favorable climate and fauna conditions in the country for the local spread of a number of parasitic diseases. Control measures with respect to this pathology are associated with timely detection and remediation of the source of infection. In the country, there is an algorithm for diagnosis, hospitalization, treatment, prevention and control of imported parasitic diseases, but it is difficult to be applied to migrants entering in the country illegally. The deficiencies in the surveillance and control of imported parasitic diseases pose a real danger for a local spread of already eradicated parasitic diseases, such as malaria, and from outbreaks of diseases that do not have local spread till the present moment.
Castelli F, Sulis G. Migration and infectious diseases. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2017; 23(5):283-289. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2017.03.012.
Odolini S, Parola P, Gkrania-Klotsas E, Caumes E, Schlagenhauf P, López-Vélez R, Burchard GD, Santos-O'Connor F, Weld L, von Sonnenburg F, Field V, de Vries P, Jensenius M, Loutan L, Castelli F. Travel-related imported infections in Europe, EuroTravNet 2009. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012; 18(5):468-74. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2011.03596.x.
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Assessing the burden of key infectious diseases affecting migrant populations in the EU/EEA. Stockholm: ECDC; 2014.
State Agency for Refugees in Bulgaria. https://www.aref.government.bg/bg/node/238
Rainova I, Jordanova D, Harizanov R, Marinova I, Bikov I, Kaftandjiev I, Tsvetkova N. Status, surveillance and control of parasitic diseases in Bulgaria in 2011. Science Infectology / Parasitology. 2013; 1: 35-40. (in Bulgarian)
Petrov P. Experimental diagnostic and epidemiological studies of some tropical parasitic diseases. DSc Thesis, NCIPD, Sofia, 1979.
Vuchev D. Studies on the hookworms and the possibilities for local distribution in the Republic of Bulgaria. PhD Thesis, NCIPD, Sofia 1984. (in Bulgarian)
Kurdova R. Amoebiasis in: Tropical Diseases (edited by B. Iliev). Pleven, Publishing Center at High Medical Institute-Pleven, 2001, p.161-168. (in Bulgarian)
Mikov O. Biological, ecological and epidemiological studies of anopheline mosquitoes in some regions of Bulgaria. PhD Thesis, NCIPD, Sofia, 2008. (in Bulgarian)
Rainova I, Harizanov R, Kaftandjiev I, Mikov O, Tsvetkova N. Imported malaria in Bulgaria, status and prognosis after eradication in1965. Journal of Infection and Public Health 2018; 11: 534–539. doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2017.10.010
Vutchev D. Tertian malaria outbreak three decades after its eradication. Jpn JInfect Dis 2001;54(2):79–80.
Kurdova R, Vutchev D, Petrov P. Malaria situation in Bulgaria and surveillance measures (1991–2000). Global Nest Intern J 2001;3(3):153–62.
Harizanov R, Rainova I, Boeva-Bangyozova V. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: Potential risk of local spread. Medical practice. 2016; 4: 8-12. (in Bulgarian)
Calleri G, Angheben A, Albonico M. Neglected tropical diseases in Europe: rare diseases and orphan drugs? Infection. 2019; 47(1):3-5. doi: 10.1007/s15010-018-1241-2.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Rumen Harizanov, Iskra Rainova, Iskren Kaftandjiev (Author)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.