• Eleonora Kaneva National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases Author https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3869-117X
  • Rumen Harizanov Author
  • Nina Tsvetkova Author
  • Iskren Kaftanjiev Author
  • Raina Borisova Author
  • Aleksandra Ivanova Author
  • Mihaela Videnova Author
  • Desislava Velcheva Author
  • Ivailo Alexiev Author
  • Reneta Dimitrova Author
  • Maria Pavlova Author
  • Ekaterina Aleksandrova Author




Enterobius vermicularis, molecular characterization, cox1 gene, intestinal imbalance


Enterobius vermicularis is an intestinal parasite with a cosmopolitan distribution and the disease which causes (enterobiasis) is one of the most common helminth infection worldwide. According to literature data it affects nearly 1 billion people and is found in various socio-economic groups. Everyone is susceptible to infection, but children are more often affected than adults due to their poorly developed hygiene habits. Patients with enterobiasis are often reinfected which together with the high endurance of the pinworm eggs in the environment contributes to the difficult control of the disease. In recent decades, a number of studies have been conducted on the genotypic characteristics of the nematode, including sequencing, which accumulates data on phylogenetic varieties of the species to improve the diagnosis and control of this infection in humans.
The available data reveal influence of E. vermicularis on the local immunity of intestinal mucosa in infected individuals, but these data are scarce and contradictory and do not clarify the significance of this influence on the clinical manifestations of the disease. Additional studies are needed to define the relationship of this effect with the clinical symptoms of the disease.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

  • Eleonora Kaneva, National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases

    Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine


Parasitology. Ed. Prof. G. Genov. Enterobiasis, p. 155. Medicine and physical education. Sofia, 1989.

Clinical Parasitology and Tropical medicine. Ed. Prof. P. Petrov and Prof. R. Kurdova. Enterobiasis. B. Chakarova, p. 266. Ed. East-West, 2016. ISBN 978-619-152-779-3.

Parasitology (local and tropical parasitosis). Ed. of Violina Boeva-Bangyozova and Kamena Vutova. Enterobiasis, B. Chakarova, p. 244. Second revised edition. Sofia, 2008.

Despommier D., Griffin D., Gwadz R., Hotez P., Knirsch C. Parasitic Diseases (Sixth Edition). Sentinel printing USA. 2017;201-208.

Vermund S., Wilson C. Pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis). Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2000; 11:252–256. https://doi.org/10.1053/spid.2000.9639 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/spid.2000.9639

Burkhart C., Burkhart C. Assessment of frequency, transmission, and genitourinary complications of enterobiasis (pinworms). Int J Dermatol. 2005; 44:837–840. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-4632.2004.02332.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-4632.2004.02332.x

Zahariou A., Karamouti M., Papaioannou P. Enterobius vermicularis in the male urinary tract: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2007; 1:137. https://dx.doi.org/10.1186%2F1752-1947-1-137 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-1947-1-137

Panidis, S., Paramythiotis D., Panagiotou D., Batsis G., Salonikidis S., Kaloutsi V., Michalopoulos A. Acute appendicitis secondary to Enterobius vermicularis infection in a middle-aged man: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2011; 5:559. https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-1947-5-559 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-1947-5-559

Georgiev V. Chemotherapy of enterobiasis (oxyuriasis). Exp. Opin. Pharmacother. 2001; 2(2):267-275. https://doi.org/10.1517/14656566.2.2.267. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1517/14656566.2.2.267

Alwaily A., Alomashi G., Al-Obiedy O. The association between helminthes infestation and IBD in the context of NOD2/CARD15 gene polymorphism and serum levels of IL1Beta and IL10. University of AlQadisiyah. 2019;1-104. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-017-0509-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-017-0509-8

Nakano T., Okamoto M., Ikeda Y., Hasegawa, H. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene and nuclear rDNA regions of Enterobius vermicularis parasitic in captive chimpanzees with special reference to its relationship with pinworms in humans. Parasitology Research. 2006; 100:51–57. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-006-0238-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-006-0238-4

Cook G. Enterobius vermicularis infection. Gut. 1994; 35:1159–1162. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.35.9.1159 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.35.9.1159

Juriš P., Dudlová A., Fábry J., Melter J., et al. Endoparasitoses in hospitalised paediatric patients with pulmonary disease. Helminthologia. 2014; 51(2):98–102. https://doi.org/10.2478/s11687-014-0216-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11687-014-0216-9

Bogitsh B., Carter C., Oeltmann T. Human Parasitology. 5th ed. 459 pp, Academic Press, USA, 2005.

Kim J., Lee H., Ahn Y. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection and preventive effects of mass treatment among children in rural and urban areas, and children in orphanages. Korean J Parasitol. 1991; 29:235-243. https://doi.org/10.3347/KJP.1991.29.3.235 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3347/kjp.1991.29.3.235

Scully G. Roundworms, Intestinal. In: Domino F., Baldor R., Golding J., Grimes J., Taylor J. (Eds) The 5-minute clinical consult 2011. 19th Edition. Philadelphia, USA: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, p. 1160, 2010.

Lacroix M., Sorensen B. Occurrence of Enterobius vermicularis in children hospitalized at a central hospital. Ugeskrift for Laeger. 2000; 162:1236–1238.

Kubiak K., Dzika E., Paukszto Ł. Enterobiasis epidemiology and molecular characterization of Enterobius vermicularis in healthy children in north-eastern Poland. Helminthologia. 2017; 54(4):284–291. https://doi.org/10.1515/helm-2017-0042 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/helm-2017-0042

Crotti D., D’Annibale M. Enterobiasis during 2002 –2003 in Perugia province: beyond diagnostics. Infez Med. 2006; 14(2):92–98.

Harizanov R., Rainova I., Tsvetkova N., Kaftandjiev I., Borisova R., Ivanova A., Videnova M. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the Bulgarian population over a three year period (2015-2017). Helminthologia. 2020; 57 (1):12-18. https://doi.org/10.2478/helm-2020-0002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/helm-2020-0002

Rainova I., Harizanov R., Tsvetkova N., Borisova R., Kaftandjiev I., Kaneva E., Ivanova A., Mikov O., Videnova M. Status of parasitic diseases in Bulgaria in 2018. General Medicine. 2020; 22 (1):13-18.

Rainova I., Harizanov R., Kaftandjiev I., Tsvetkova N., Mikov O., Kaneva E. Human Parasitic Diseases in Bulgaria 2013- 2014. Balkan Med Journal. 2017; 35(1):61-67. https://doi.org/10.4274/balkanmedj.2017.0167 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4274/balkanmedj.2017.0167

Rainova I., Harizanov R., Tsvetkova N., Borisova R., Kaneva E., Ivanova A., Kaftandjiev I., Videnova M., Mikov O. Incidence and prevalence of parasitoses in Bulgaria in 2019. 18th National Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infections, Sofia, Park Hotel Moscow, 30.09.-02.10.2020.

Rainova I., Harizanov R., Tsvetkova N., Borisova R., Kaneva E., Ivanova A., Kaftandjiev I., Videnova M., Mikov O. Parasitic Diseases in Bulgaria in 2020 19th National Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infections, Sofia, Park Hotel Moscow, 14.09.-16.09.2021.

Kang S., Jeon H., Eom K., Park J. Egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in Cheongju, Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea. Korean J of Parasitology. 2006; 44:247-249. https://doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2006.44.3.247 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2006.44.3.247

Dudlová A., Juriš P., Jarčuška P. et al. The incidence of pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis) in pre-school and school aged children in the Eastern Slovakia. Helminthologia. 2018; 55(4): 275-280. https://doi.org/10.2478/helm-2018-0030 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/helm-2018-0030

Ferreira L., Reinhard K., Araújo A., Coura L. Paleoparasitology of Oxyuriasis. An Acad Nac Med. 1997; 157:20-24.

Iñiguez A., Reinhard K., Araùjo A., Ferreira L., Vicente A. Enterobius vermicularis: Ancient DNA from North and South American Human Coprolites. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2003; 98:67-69. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0074-02762003000900013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02762003000900013

Garcia L. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology. 4th Edn. ASM Press, Washington D.C., USA. 2001.

Roberts L., Janovy J. Schmidt and Roberts’ Foundations of Parasitology. McGraw-Hill, New York, USA, 2009.

Zelck U., Bialek R., Weiß M. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Enterobius vermicularis and development of an 18S ribosomal DNA-targeted diagnostic PCR. J of Cl Microbiol. 2011; 49:1602-1604. https://doi.org/10.1128/jcm.02454-10 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02454-10

Piperaki E., Spanakos G., Patsantara G., Vassalou E., Vakalis N., Tsakris A. Characterization of Enterobius vermicularis in a human population, employing a molecular-based method from adhesive tape samples. Mol Cell Probes. 2011; 25:121–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcp.2011.03.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcp.2011.03.005

Kang S., Sultana T., Eom K., Park Y., Soonthornpong N., Nadler S., Park J. The mitochondrial genome sequence of Enterobius vermicularis (Nematoda: Oxyurida)–An idiosyncratic gene order and phylogenetic information for chromadorean nematodes. Gene. 2008; 429(1–2):87–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2008.09.011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2008.09.011

Ferrero M., Röser D., Nielsen H., Olsen A., Nejsum P. Genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA among Enterobius vermicularis in Denmark. Parasitology. 2013; 140:109-114. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182012001308 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182012001308

Hagh V., Oskouei M., Bazmani A. et al. Genetic classification and differentiation of Enterobius vermicularis based on mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase (cox1) in Northwest of Iran. J of Pure and Applied Microbiology. 2014; 8(5):3995-3999. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0022149x18000962

Tomanakan K., Sanpool O., Chamavit P., et al. Genetic variation of Enterobius vermicularis among schoolchildren in Thailand. J of Helminthology. 2018; 94:e7. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0022149x18000962 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X18000962

Anthony R., Rutitzky L., Urban J. Jr., Stadecker M., Gause Protective immune mechanisms in helminth infection. Nat Rev Immunol. 2007; 7(12):975-987. https://doi.org/10.1038/nri2199 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nri2199

Patsantara G., Piperaki E., Tzoumaka-Bakoula C., Kanariou M. Immune responses in children infected with the pinworm Enterobius vermicularis in central Greece. J Helminthol. 2016; 90(3):337-341. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0022149x15000334 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X15000334

Corthesy B. Multi-faceted functions of secretory IgA at mucosal surfaces. Front Immunol. 2013; 4:185. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2013.00185

Mestecky J., Russell M., Elson C. Intestinal IgA: novel views on its function in the defence of the largest mucosal surface. Gut. 1999; 44:2-5. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2013.00185 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.44.1.2

Matysiak-Budnik T., Moura I., Arcos-Fajardo M., Lebreton C., Menard S., Candalh C., et al. Secretory IgA mediates retrotranscytosis of intact gliadin peptides via the transferrin receptor in celiac disease. J Exp Med. 2008; 205(1):143-154. https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20071204 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20071204

Yang C., Liang C., Lin C., Hsiao C., Peng C., Lin H., Chang J. Impact of Enterobius vermicularis infection and mebendazole treatment on intestinal microbiota and host immune response. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2017; 11 (9):e0005963. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005963 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005963

Lee S., Tang M., Lim Y., Choy S., Kurtz Z., et al. Helminth colonization is associated with increased diversity of the gut microbiota. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2014; 8(5):e2880. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002880 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002880

Clinical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine. Ed. Prof. P. Petrov and Prof. R. Kurdova. Pathology of parasitic diseases, R. Kurdova, p. 79. Ed. East-West, 2016. ISBN 978-619-152-779-3.

Berrilli F., Di Cave D., Cavallero S., D’Amelio S. Interactions between parasites and microbial communities in the human gut. Fron Cell Infect Microbiol. 2012; 16(2):article 141. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2012.00141 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2012.00141







How to Cite

Kaneva, E.; Harizanov, R.; Tsvetkova, N.; Kaftanjiev, I.; Borisova, R.; Ivanova, A.; Videnova, M.; Velcheva, D.; Alexiev, I.; Dimitrova, R.; Pavlova, M.; Aleksandrova, E. E. VERMICULARIS – PROSPECTS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH: A BRIEF LITERATURE REVIEW. Probl Infect Parasit Dis 2023, 50 (2), 13-18. https://doi.org/10.58395/pipd.v50i2.92.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>